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"Halogenated anesthetic agents (desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane) may have cardioprotective properties at therapeutic doses against myocardial intraoperative ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardioprotection mechanisms are related to mitochondrial and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Experimental and human studies have proven that their use may reduce morbidity and mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery, including a reduction in myocardial infarct size and mechanical ventilation needs. On the contrary, total intra-venous propofol based anesthesia may be detrimental. In the present review, we show the rationale for the perioperative use of halogenated anesthetics based on mechanisms of action, experimental research and human studies. Considerations and major concerns in their use, the present evidence for their use in other areas, such as major non-cardiac surgeries and ICU patients, and future perspectives are also discussed."1
1. Halogenated agents and cardiovascular surgery: has mortality really decreased.
Landoni G, Lopez-Delgado JC, Sartini C, Tamà S, Zangrillo A.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print]